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FRA Report: Discrimination and Hate Crime against Jews in EU Member States

The report presents the findings of FRA’s survey on experiences and perceptions of hate crime, discrimination and antisemitism among self-identified Jewish respondents in eight European Union (EU) Member States – Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Sweden and the United Kingdom. It describes the personal experiences and perceptions of 5,847 Jewish persons concerning the extent and nature of various incidents in their daily lives – including incidents of hate crime, discrimination and various manifestations of antisemitism. The survey was carried out online during September and October 2012. The eight EU countries covered are home to over 90 % of the EU’s estimated Jewish population.

 

 

The largest samples were obtained from France (1,192) and the United Kingdom (1,468), the smallest sample was provided by Latvia (154 respondents), which is has the smallest estimated Jewish population.

FRA reports annually on the situation of antisemitism in the EU, based on existing governmental and non-governmental data and information. These reports show that antisemitism continues to be a reality in many EU Member States.

According to the survey results, 66% of the respondents consider antisemitism to be a very big or a fairly big problem in their country, 76% of the respondents consider antisemitism being increased over the past 5 years and 68% of the respondents said that they at least occasionally avoid in public wearing, carrying or displaying signs such as kippa, Star of David or Mezuza, possibly identifying them as Jews.

7% of the respondents experienced physical violence or threats of violence in a way that frightened them because of being Jewish in the last 5 years. 21% of the respondents said to have personally experienced some type of antisemitic incident (verbal insults/harassment and/or physical attacks) because they were Jewish in the 12 month prior to the survey. 24% said that their family members/other close persons became victims of such incidents in the 12 months prior to the survey. 27% of the respondents said to have witnessed in the 12 months prior to the survey other Jews insulted or attacked because they were Jewish. 29% of the respondents considered in the last 5 years emigrating because of not feeling safe as a Jew (average in the 8 surveyed countries: 29%)

76% of the victims of antisemitic harassment did not report the most serious incident in the past five years to the police or other organisations. Although, 74% of the respondents are aware of a law in their country that forbids incitement to violence or hatred against Jews and 54% of the respondents believe that there is in their country a national law that forbids denial or trivialisation of the Holocaust.

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